The main early warning sensor of the ISSS is ART Midrange, an advanced high resolution ground surveillance radar part of the radar family developed by ART.
Its main features are:
- Designed for medium-range surface surveillance.
- Provides 2D information (azimuth-distance) of the detected objects to perform land surface surveillance.
- High detection probability in strong ground clutter environment.
- Configurable for fixed and transportable installations.
- Operation in extreme weather conditions.
- Remote operation.
The optronic solution is based on a single platform that integrates two cameras. One uncooled vanadium oxide micro bolometer with a FPA (Focal Plane Array) detector of 640x840 resolution and 100 mm lens to achieve a detection range of 2,5 km for personnel and of 6 km for a vehicle and one CCD camera of 1920x1080 pixels. The precision pan/tilt mechanism gives the operator accurate pointing control while providing fully programmable scan patterns, radar slew-to-cue, and slew-to-alarm functionality. It is connected to the surveillance radar so that If the radar detects an object, it will automatically turn in the right direction to provide a visual image of the radar plot.
In wide area multinode sensors systems, radar only and/or optronic only configurations can be achieved. Typically when the identification requirements are very tight, more optronic only sensor nodes will be required to fill gaps due to the shorter range of cameras in comparison with radar.
The typical early warning sensor in BSS and CIP applications is the radar. Surveillance radars are continuously looking for intruders in their coverage area and provide very reliable distance and azimuth information of possible threats. However when coverage is obstructed by terrain highlights (forest, hills, vegetation,…) radar is no longer of value and different sensors must take the early warning role in such conditions. In these cases, in when Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) play the role of the radar.
UGS are based on seismic sensors buried in the ground that detect the low frequency signal that is generated by persons walking in their proximity (30-100m) and propagates through the ground. UGS are also complemented by magnetic sensors that detect the metallic mass of vehicles at 1-10m. UGS are made of sensor nodes, each equipped with a seismic and magnetic sensor and with a wireless transceiver to send alarms to a remote collecting post (typically a surveillance station), plus a long life battery to let the sensors be buried without external power for several years.
In the figure one typical configuration for a BSS is shown:
In this example, the border is surrounded by a forest that obstructs coverage for the radar and optronic installed in a surveillance station. Then a network of UGS sensor nodes is deployed in the forest to detect intruders crossing the border. The data from the UGS sensors is sent by wireless to the surveillance station where the border police operator is alerted and waits until the intruders arrive at radar coverage, out of the forest, to detect and track them and to prepare the intercept operations.
The next page picture shows an artist view of a similar situation in a border with hills that produce radar gaps and where the UGS sensor networks are installed remotely in the border in the mountain.
Red coloured areas show gaps in the radar and optronic coverage. UGS networks produce alarms when intruders go through and the mobile station then is advise of the expected route to prepare the radar for its detection and make then its tracking.
Next picture shows a typical installation of an UGS network along a forest pathway:
The only problem that UGS sensors may have is the number of false alarms produced by animals or other natural hazards (the roots of the trees in windy days, rocks falling,…). To reduce the false alarm rate is why the deployment of sensor nodes in networks is recommended. The seismic signal is then captured by several nodes and later processed using CFAR type algorithms obtaining in such a way, very little false alarms.
IS3 integrates a C3 Suite, which is an Integrated Security Management Platform that provides a Common Operating Environment that integrates different security subsystems and sensors into a single, fused view. While the possible applications are endless, VSOC is currently targeted at three primary markets:
- Critical infrastructure protection (CIP)
- Department of Defense force protection.
- Commercial business continuity.
C3 Suite workflow-oriented command and control modules result in real-time threat recognition, analysis, collaboration and coordinated response. C3 Suite is proven to give unprecedented situational awareness required to monitor and respond to security and operational events with the use of a common operating picture. The C3 Suite product incorporates high definition 3-D models of buildings and other critical infrastructure assets, then overlays security systems onto these models to give end-users (both local and remote) a real-time picture of events and alarms in their operational space.
In the market of CIP physical and facility security involves the definition of a security perimeter, the authorization and control of access across that perimeter, the detection of unauthorized intrusion into the perimeter, and the tracking of personnel within the perimeter. The perimeter is defined in order to protect an asset within its borders, and the nature of the perimeter and the amount of enforcement and monitoring thereof are directly related to the value of the asset being protected.
An endless number and variety of physical security systems and subsystems have been developed to provide some aspect of perimeter definition, access control, intrusion detection, and asset monitoring, designed to protect to various degrees assets of varying value. The mission of C3 Suite is to integrate these various subsystems into a single, composite view so that facility security enforcement personnel may monitor, control, and respond quickly and appropriately in the event of an access violation. The table shows the types of security subsystems currently supported by C3 Suite.
The C3 Suite contains a photo-realistic 3D display that provides complete situational awareness and intuitive control of a facility’s security systems from a single console. VSOC is a software toolkit for integration of disparate security systems and provides:
- 3-D site modeling of the customer facilities.
- Integration with other security systems.
- Alarm monitoring with automatic call-up.
- Interface to digital video recorders for pre and post alarm video storage and replay
- Integration with systems that communicate via a simple network management protocol (SNMP).
The C3 Suite works with Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) and remote video monitoring systems for interactive camera selection and automatic camera call-up for alarm assessment. The system is configurable with off-the-shelf interfaces to conventional security and video products, and an extensible architecture for integration with advanced security systems.
The C3 Suite is also a robust, flexible, and rugged application that solves the C2ISR needs for today’s war fighter. Military and force protection personnel can now have detailed information on simultaneous security events in one common operating picture.